Seed-borne pathogenic fungi on some soybean varieties




Abstract. Soesanto L, Hartono ARR, Mugiastuti E, Widarta H. 2020. Seed-borne pathogenic fungi on some soybean varieties. Biodiversitas 21: 4010-4015. The present study was conducted to detect and identify seed-borne pathogenic fungi in some soybean varieties and their effect on seed germination. Experiment was performed in a completely random design with eight treatments and four replicates. Eight soybean varieties i.e., Malabar, Kaba, Dering, Detam I, Sinabung, Dena, Gepak Kuning, and Slamet were selected for the investigation. Seed borne fungi were isolated using blotter test and agar plate techniques. The variables observed were morphological/cultural characteristics, microscopic features of fungi, and percentage of seed germination. A total of eight fungi namely Aspergillus flavus Link, Aspergillus niger van Tieghem, Cladosporium oxysporum Berk. & M.A. Curtis, Colletotrichum dematium (Pers. et Fr.) Grove f.sp. truncate (Schw.) Arx, Curvularia pallescens Boedijn, Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc., Melanospora zamiae Corda, and Nigrospora sp. Mason were isolated from different varieties of soybean seeds. The highest seed germination was found to be 80.5% in Daring and Detam I varieties, respectively, and the lowest 53% was recorded in Dena variety.


Amteme K, Tefa A. 2018. Identification of pathogenic fungi on several rice seeds based on storage model. Portal Jurnal Unimor 3(1):4-7.
Alsohaili SA, Bani-Hasan BM. 2018. Morphological and molecular identification of fungi isolated from different environmental sources in the northern eastern desert of Jordan. Jordan Journal of Biological Sciences 11(3): 329-337.
Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS). 2018. Harvest area, Productivity, and Production of Soybean at East Java. Diakses pada 21 Desember 2018.
Benoit MA, Mathur SB. 1970. Identifiacation of Species of Curvularia on Rice Seed. Proc. Int. Seed Test. Ass. 23 pp.
Bishaw Z, Struik PC, van Gastel AJG. 2013. Farmer’s seed sources and seed quality: 2. seed health. International Journal of Plant Production 7(4): 637-657.
Bowo P, Nurayati A, Imleesh RM. 2016. Analysis of competitiveness and government policy on rice, corn and soybean farming. .JEJAK:Jurnal Ekonomi dan Kebijakan 9(2), 159-169. DOI:10.15294/jejak.v9i2.8235.
Briceño EX, Latorre BA. 2007. Outbreaks of Cladosporium rot associated with delayed harvest wine grapes in Chile. Plant Dis. 91(8): 1060. DOI: 10.1094/PDIS-91-8-1060C.
Chang PK, Cary JW, Lebar MD. 2020. Biosynthesis of conidial and sclerotial pigments in Aspergillus species. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 104: 2277–2286. DOI: 10.1007/s00253-020-10347-y.
de Camargo MP, de Moraes MHD, Menten JOM. 2017. Efficiency of blotter test and agar culture medium to detect Fusarium graminearum and Pyricularia grisea in wheat seeds. Journal of Seed Science 39(3). DOI: 10.1590/2317-1545v39n3168931.
Dey D, Saha B, Sircar G, Ghosal K, Bhattacharya SG. 2016. Mass spectrometry-based identification of allergens from Curvularia pallescens, a prevalent aerospore in India. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Proteins and Proteomics 1864(7): 869-879. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbapap.2016.03.012.
Domsch KH, Gams W, Anderson TH. 1980. Compedium of Soil Fungi. Academic Press. New York. 860 pp.
Dutta B, Gitaitis R, Smith S, Langston Jr D. 2014. Interactions of seedborne bacterial pathogens with host and non-host plants in relation to seed infestation and seedling transmission. PLoS ONE 9(6): e99215. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0099215.
Ellis MB. 1971. Dematiaceous Hypomycetes. Commonwealth Mycological Institute. England. 604 pp.
Escamilla D, Rosso ML, Zhang B. 2019. Identification of fungi associated with soybeans and effective seed disinfection treatments. Food Science and Nutrition 7(10): 3194–3205. DOI: 10.1002/fsn3.1166.
Gaddeyya G, Niharika PS, Bharathi P, Kumar PKR. 2012. Isolation and identification of soil mycoflora in different crop fields at Salur Mandal. Advances in Applied Science Research 3 (4): 2020-2026.
Garuba T, Abdulrahaman AA, Olahan GS, Abdulkareem KA, Amadi JE. 2014. Effects of fungal filtrates on seed germination and leaf anatomy of maize seedlings (Zea mays L., Poaceae). Journal of Applied Science & Environmental Management 18(4): 662-667. DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v18i4.15.
Gautam AK, Bhadauria R. 2012. Characterization of Aspergillus species associated with commercially stored triphala powder. African Journal Biotechnology 11(104): 16814-16823.
Gautam AK, Sharma S, Avasthi S, Bhadauria R. 2011. Diversity, pathogenicity and toxicology of A. niger: An important spoilage fungi. Research Journal of Microbiology 6: 270-280. DOI: 10.3923/jm.2011.270.280.
Ghangaokar NM, Kshirsagar AD. 2013. Study of seed borne fungi of different legumes. Science Journal 2(1):32-35.
Guan G-Q, Zhao P-X, Zhao J, Wang M-J, Huo S-H, Cui F-J, Jiang J-X. 2016. Production and partial characterization of an alkaline xylanase from a novel fungus Cladosporium oxysporum. BioMed Research International, Article ID 4575024, 7 pages.
Gupta S, Dubey A, Singh T. 2017. Fusarium semitectum as a dominant seed-borne pathogen in albezzia lebbeck (linn.) benth., its effect on location and transmission studies. Research Journal of Forestry 11: 13-18. DOI: 10.3923/rjf.2017.13.18.
Hafizi R, Salleh B, Latiffah Z. 2013. Morphological and molecular characterization of Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum associated with crown disease of oil palm. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology 44(3). DOI: 10.1590/S1517-83822013000300047.
Haggag WM, Singer S. 2013. First report of Colletotrichum capsici causing pre and postharvest anthracnose on papaya in Egypt. International Journal Engineer Innovation Technology 3(6):151-152.
Hameed AAA, Ayesh AM, Mohamed MAR, Mawla HFA. 2012. Fungi and some mycotoxins producing species in the air of soybean and cotton mills: a case study. Atmospheric Pollution Research 3(1): 126-131. DOI: 10.5094/APR.2012.012.
Hao Y, Aluthmuhandiram JVS, Chethana KWT, Manawasinghe IS, Li X, Liu M. 2020. Nigrospora species associated with various hosts from Shandong Peninsula, China. Mycobiology 48(3): 169-183. DOI: 10.1080/12298093.2020.1761747.
Hoog GSde, Guarro J, Gene J, Figueras MJ. 2001. Atlas of Clinical Fungi (2nd ed.). Amer Society for Microbiology. Netherlands. 1160 hal.
ISTA. 1996. International Rules for Seed Testing, Rules 1996. International Seed Testing Association (ISTA). Seed Science and Technology 24 (supplement). Zurich. Switzerland.
Kinnikar A, Desai P, Jahagirdar S. 2015. Identification and detection of seed-borne diseases of soybean using image processing-a survey. International Journal of Emerging Technology in Computer Science and Electronics 14(2): 363-368.
Koneman EW. 1979. Practical Laboratory Mycology 2nd Edition. The Williams and Wilkins Co. USA.153 pp.
Krijgsheld P, Bleichrodt R, van Veluw GJ, Wang F, Müller WH, Dijksterhuis J, Wösten HAB. 2013. Development in Aspergillus. Stud Mycol. 74(1): 1–29. DOI: 10.3114/sim0006.
Machowicz-Stefaniak Z. 2010. Occurrence and characterization of Colletotrichum dematium (Fr.) Grove. Polish Journal of Microbiology 59(3): 191-200.
Mathur SB, Kongsdal O. 2003. Common Laboratory Seed Health Testing Methods for Detecting Fungi. Bassedorf (CH): International Seed Testing Assosiation. Switzerland. 425 pp.
Navi SS, Singh SD, Lenne JM, Kirk PM, Brayford D. 1999. New grain mold fungi of sorghum in India. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology 27: 104-105.
Nelson RR. 2003. Genetics of horizontal resistance to plant diseases. Annual Review of Phytopathology 16(1): 359-378. DOI: 10.1146/
Ningrum IH, Irianto H, Riptanti EW. 2018. Analysis of soybean production and import trends and its import factors in Indonesia. IOP Conference Series Earth and Environmental Science 142(1): 012059. DOI: 10.1088/1755-1315/142/1/012059.
Pathak N, Zaidi RK. 2013. Studies on seed-borne fungi of wheat in seed health testing programme. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection 46(4): 389-401. DOI: 10.1080/03235408.2012.741978.
Pedraza LA, Bautista J, Uribe-Vélez D. 2018. Seed-born Burkholderia glumae infects rice seedling and maintains bacterial population during vegetative and reproductive growth stage. Plant Pathol J. 34(5): 393–402. DOI: 10.5423/PPJ.OA.02.2018.0030.
Penfield S, MacGregor DR. 2017. Effects of environmental variation during seed production on seed dormancy and germination. Journal of Experimental Botany 68(4): 819–825.
Pérez-Pizá MC, Prevosto L, Grijalba PE, Zilli CG, Cejas E, Mancinelli B, Balestrasse KB. 2019. Improvement of growth and yield of soybean plants through the application of non-thermal plasmas to seeds with different health status. Heliyon 5(4): e01495. DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e01495.
Praja RN, Yudhana A. 2017. Isolation and identification of Aspergillus spp. on lung chicken for sale at Banyuwangi Market. Jurnal Medik Veteriner 1(1): 6-11.
Procop GW, Church DL, Janda WM, Koneman EW, Schreckenberger PC, Woods GL. 2016. Color Atlas and Textbook of Diagnostic Microbiology, Seventh Edition. Wolters Kluwer. Australia. 1864 pp.
Purnawati F. 2015. Identification, level of attack, and the potential to carry Colletotrichum sp. seeds in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Tesis. Institut Pertanian Bogor. [27 Juni 2019].
Rahayu AD, Suharsi TK. 2015. Observation of germination test and optimization of winged (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus L.) seed germination substrate. Buletin Agrohorti 3(1):18-27.
Rao TV, Rajeswari B, Keshavulu K, Varma VS. 2015. Studies on seed-borne fungi of soybean. SSRG International Journal of Agriculture and Environ. Science 2(1): 16-24.
Saylendra A, Fatmawaty A. 2010. Identification of microbes carried by soybean seed varieties of Galunggung, Wilis, dan Anjasmoro. Jurnal Agroekoteknologi 2(1): 27-30.
Sharma D, Gupta R, Joshi I. 2014. Nutrient analysis of raw and processed soybean and development of value added soybean noodles. Inventi Rapid: Life Style 2014(1): 1-5.
Sharma KK, Singh US, Sharma P, Kumar A, Sharma L. 2015. Seed treatments for sustainable agriculture-A review. Journal of Applied and Natural Science 7(1): 521–539.
Wain-Tassi AL, dos Santos JF, de Cássia Panizzi R, Vieira RD. 2012. Seed-borne pathogens and electrical conductivity of soybean seeds. Scientia Agricola (Piracicaba, Braz.) 69(1). DOI: 10.1590/S0103-90162012000100004.
Walsh TJ, Hayden RT, Larone DH. 2018. Medically Important Fungi A Guide to Identification 6th Edition.ASM Press. USA. 550 hal.
Wangge ESA, Suprapta DN, Wirya GNA. 2012. Isolasi dan identifikasi jamur penghasil mikotoksin pada biji kakao kering yang dihasilkan di Flores. Journal Agritech Science and Biotechnology 1(1):39-47.
Watanabe T. 2002. Pictorial Atlas of Soil and Seed Fungi Morphologies of Cultured Fungi and Key to Species 2nd Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, USA. 504 pp.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>