Short Communication: The potency of lytic bacteriophage isolated from various environments to control the growth of Citrobacter braakii causing urinary tract infection




Abstract. Sheilahrusi, Priyanto JA, Rismiyati H, Rusmana I, Budiarti S. 2021. Short Communication: The potency of lytic bacteriophage isolated from various environments to control the growth of Citrobacter braakii causing urinary tract infection. Biodiversitas 22: 5550-5554. Citrobacter braakii is one of the pathogenic bacteria causing urinary tract infection (UTI) in humans. Bacteriophages that are specifically infecting C. braakii could be the alternatives to combat antibiotics resistance cases of this bacterium. This study aimed to isolate lytic phages from various environmental samples (tofu factory wastewater, sewage water, rice field water, fishpond water, cattle farm wastewater, and goat farm wastewater), and to analyze their effectivity to reduce UTI-causing C. braakii population in vitro. Results exhibited that phages targeting this bacterium were found in goat and cattle farm wastewater and not present in other samples. Two phages, namely FC1 and FC2, had different plaque morphology characteristics. The number of phages in cattle farm wastewater was 2.8 × 105 PFU/mL and 1.32 × 104 PFU/mL in goat farm wastewater. It was observed that the phages found in these environments also indicate the presence of their host. After 8 h incubation, FC1 and FC2 phage reduced UTI-causing C. braaakii population in vitro from 0.23×108 CFU/mL to 0.03×108 CFU/mL and 0.02×108 CFU/mL, respectively. The phages isolated from these two samples can be further developed for the treatment of UTI caused by C. braakii and goat and cattle farm wastewater treatment to prevent contaminating other areas.


Bhetwal A, Maharjan A, Shakya S, Satyal D, Ghimire S, Khanal PR, Parajuli NP. 2017. Isolation of potential phages against multidrug-resistant bacterial isolates: promising agents in the rivers of Kathmandu, Nepal. BioMed Research International. 2017: 1-10. DOI:
Brown TL, Petrovski S, Dyson ZA, Seviour R, Tucci J. 2016. The formulation of bacteriophage in a semi solid preparation for control of Propionibacterium acnes growth. Plos One. 11 (13): 1-16. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0151184.
Budiarti S, Pratiwi RH, Rusmana I. 2011. Infectivity of lytic phage to enteropathogenic Escherichia coli from diarrheal patients in Indonesia. Journal US-China Medical Science. 8: 273-282.
Callaway TR, Edrington TS, Brabban AD, Anderson RC, Rossman ML, Engler MJ, Carr MA, Genovese KJ, Keen JE, Looper ML, Kutter EM, Nisbet DJ. 2008. Bacteriophage isolated from feedlot cattle can reduce Escherichia coli o157:h7 populations in ruminant gastrointestinal tracts. 5 (2): 183- 191. DOI: 10.1089=fpd.2007.0057.
Christine G, Budiarti S, Astuti RI. 2018. Diversity of urinary tract infection bacteria in children in Indonesia based on metagenomic approach. Biodiversitas. 19: 1375-1381. DOI:
Hallewell J, Niu YD, Munns K, McAllister TA, Johnson RP, Ackermann HW, Thomas JE, Stanford K. 2014. Differing populations of endemic bacteriophages in cattle shedding high and low numbers of Escherichia coli O157:H7 bacteria in feces. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 80(13): 3819-3825. DOI: 10.1128/AEM.00708-14.
Jia K, Yang N, Zhang X, Cai R, Zhang Y, Tian J, Raza SHA, Kang Y, Qian A, Li Y, Sun W, Shen J, Yao J, Shan X, Zhang L, Wang G. 2020. Genomic, Morphological and Functional Characterization of Virulent Bacteriophage IME-JL8 Targeting Citrobacter freundii. Frontiers in Microbiology. 11: 1-12. DOI:
Jin J, Li ZJ, Wang SW, Huang DH, Li YH, M YY, Wang J, Liu F, Chen XD, Li GX, Wang XT, Wang ZQ, Zhao GQ. 2012. Isolation and characterization of ZZ1, a novel lytic phage that infects Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates. BMC Microbiology. 12 (156): 1-8. DOI:
Khairnar K, Pal P, Chandekar RH, Paunikar WN. 2014. Isolation and characterization of bacteriophages infecting nocardioforms in wastewater treatment plant. Biotechnology Research International. 2014: 1-5. DOI:
Kusmiatun A, Rusmana I, Budiarti S. 2015. Characterization of Bacteriophage Specific to Bacillus pumilus from Ciapus River in Bogor, West Java, Indonesia. Hayati Journal of Biosciences. 22: 27-33. DOI: 10.4308/hjb.22.1.27.
Lennon M, Liao YT, Slavador A, Lauzon CR, Wu VC. 2020. Bacteriophages specific to Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli exist in goat feces and associated environments on an organic produce farm in Northern California, USA. Plos One. 15 (16): 1-16. DOI:
Lin DM, Koskella B, Lin HC. 2017. Phage therapy: an alternative to antibiotics in the age of multi-drug resistance. World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Theurapetics. 8: 162-173. DOI: 10.4292/wjgptv8.i3.162.
Lingga R, Budiarti S, Rusmana I, Wahyudi AT. 2020. Isolation, characterization and efficacy of lytic bacteriophages against pathogenic Escherichia coli from hospital liquid waste. Biodiversitas. 21: 3234-3241. DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d210745.
Medina M, Castillo-Pino E. 2019. An introduction to the epidemiology and burden of urinary tract infections. Theurapeutic Advances in Urology. 11: 3-7. DOI: 10.1177/1756287219832172.
Metri BC, Jyothi P, Peerapur BV. 2013. Antibiotic resistance in Citrobacter spp. isolated from urinary tract infection. Urology Annals. 5: 312-313. DOI: 10.4103/0974-7796.120295.
Miguel TD, Rama JLR, Sieiro C, Sanchez S, Villa TG. 2020. Bacteriophages and lysins as possible alternatives to treat antibiotic-resistant urinary tract infections. Antibiotics. 9 (8): 1-12. DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics9080466.
Pukancikova L, Lipnicanova S, Kacaniova M, Chmelova D, Ondrejovic M. 2016. Natural microflora of raw cow milk and their enzymatic spoilage potential. Nova Biotechnological et Chimica. 15 (2): 142-155. DOI: 10.1515/nbec-2016-0015.
Sami H, Sultan A, Rizvi M, Khan F, Ahmad S, Shukla I, Khan HM. 2017. Citrobacter as a uropathogen, its prevalence and antibiotics susceptibility pattern. Virology Journal. 4: 23-26. DOI: 10.4103/2348-3334.196037.
Seshadri R, Leahy SC, Attwood GT, The KH, Lambie SC, Cookson AL, Paez-Espino D, Hungate 1000 project collaborators, Perry R, Henderson G, Creevey CJ, Terrapon N, Lapebie P, Drula E, Lombard V, Rubin E, Kyrpides NC, Henrissat B, Woyke T, Ivanova NN, Kelly WJ. 2018. Cultivation and sequencing of rumen microbiome members from the Hungate1000 collection. Nature Biotechnology. 36 (4): 359-367. DOI: 10.1038/nbt.4110.
Setyorini H, Tjempakasari A, Mardiana N. 2019. Risk factors for urinary tract infection in hospitalized patients. Biomolecular and Health Science Journal. 2: 4-8. DOI: 10.20473/bhsjv2i1.11549.
Shukla S, Hirpurkar D. 2011. Recovery status of bacteriophages of different livestock farms of Veterinary College, Adhartal, Jabalpur, India. Veterinary World. 4 (3): 117-119.
Sufa HI, Budarti S, Rusmana I. 2018. Diversity of uropathogenic Escherichia coli lytic phage from Cisadane River, West Java, Indonesia based on morphology and protein molecular weight characteristics. Biodiversitas. 19 (6): 2359-2364. DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d190646.
Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Mondal SC, Jana S. 2015. Phenotyping and 16S rDNA analysis after biofield treatment on Citrobacter braakii: A Urinary Pathogen. Journal of Clinical & Mediical Genomics. 3: 1-8. DOI: 10.4172/2472-128X.1000129.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>