Revealing Spanish mackerel’s diversity in Indonesian through local commodities in the fish market




Abstract. Widayanti R, Nugroho HA, Megarani DV, Widiasih DA, Pakpahan S. 2021. Revealing Spanish mackerel’s diversity in Indonesian through local commodities in the fish market. Biodiversitas 23: 624-630. The objective of this study was to explore the diversity of Spanish mackerel in Indonesian Archipelago based on commodities offered in local fish markets. Eighteen specimens were collected from six different fish markets around the Indonesian archipelago. According to Wallace Line, the cytochrome B sequence was used as a genetic marker to reveal diversity from West Indonesia to East Indonesia. Gene amplification was performed using the polymerase chain reaction followed by Sanger sequencing. Based on DNA sequence analysis, we identified three species of Spanish Mackerel available at various fish markets around the region. The first group is related to Scomberomorus commerson, which was sold in both Western and Eastern Indonesian fish markets; the second group is related to Scomberomorus semifasciatus, which was sold in Eastern Indonesian fish markets; and the third group is related to Scomberomorus koreanus, which was sold in Western Indonesian fish markets. The genetic differences amongst Spanish Mackerel populations ranged from 0 to 17% and the average evolutionary divergence in the overall populations was determined to be 4%. The data collected can be utilized to initiate map mackerel diversity based on CYT B sequence throughout the Indonesian Archipelago, as well as for further study and application in the identification of foods produced from mackerel.


Abdussamad E, Pillai NGK, Kasim H, Habeeb OM, Jeyabalan K. 2010. Fishery, biology and population characteristics of the Indian mackerel, Rastrelliger kanagurta (Cuvier) exploited along the Tuticorin coast. Indian Journal of Fisheries 57: 17-21.
Andriyono S. 2018. Overview of Indonesian Fisheries sector: Java and Bali Islands. International Journal of Life Sciences & Earth Sciences 1: 39-48.
Collette B, Carpenter KE, Di Natale A, Fox W, Juan Jorda M, Nelson R. 2011a. Scomberomorus semifasciatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T170337A6754351.
Collette B, Chang SK, Di Natale A, Fox W, Juan Jorda M, Miyabe N, Nelson R. 2011b. Scomberomorus commerson. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T170316A6745396.
Corapci B, Guneri N. 2020. Comparative assessment of nutritional composition and physicochemical properties of fresh, freeze- dried and rehydrated rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792) mince. Food Science and Technology 40: 163-169. DOI: 10.1590/fst.08419
Flynn, JM, Brown EA, Chain FJ, MacIsaac HJ, and Cristescu ME. 2015. Toward accurate molecular identification of species in complex environmental samples: testing the performance of sequence filtering and clustering methods. Ecology and evolution, 5(11), 2252-2266.
Ibrahim A, Budisatria IGS, Widayanti R, Artama WT. 2020. The genetic profiles and maternal origin of local sheep breeds on Java Island (Indonesia) based on complete mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequences. Veterinary World 13: 2625-2634. DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2020.2625-2634.
Ibrahim A. 2021. The Profile of Local Sheep in Java Island based on Phenotypic and Genetic Characteristics and Their Role in the Community. [Dissertation]. Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta. [Indonesian]
Jackson AM, Ambariyanto, Erdmann MV, Toha AHA, Stevens LA, Barber PH. 2014. Phylogeography of commercial tuna and mackerel in the Indonesian Archipelago. Bull.Mar.Sci. 90: 471-492. DOI:
Kang JI, Yoon HS, Kim SM, Park JE, Hyun YJ, Ko A, ... , Kang HK. 2018. Mackerel-derived fermented fish oil promotes hair growth by anagen-stimulating pathways. International journal of molecular sciences 19: 2770.
Kidd KK, Speed WC, Wootton S, Lagace R, Langit R, Haigh E, ... and Pakstis AJ. 2015. Genetic markers for massively parallel sequencing in forensics. Forensic Science International: Genetics Supplement Series, 5, e677-e679.
Kumar G, Kunal SP, Menezes MR. 2012. Low genetic variation suggests single stock of kawakawa Euthynnus affinis (Cantor, 1849) along the Indian Coast. Turk J Fish Aquat Sc. 12:371–380. DOI 10.1007/s10592-012-0359-5
Kumar R, Pandey BK, Sarkar UK, Nagpure NS, Baisvar VS, Agnihotri P, ..., Kumar N. 2017. Population genetic structure and geographic differentiation in butter catfish, Ompok bimaculatus, from Indian waters inferred by cytochrome b mitochondrial gene. Mitochondrial DNA Part A 28: 442-450.
Kumar S, Stecher G, Li M, Knyaz C, Tamura K. 2018. MEGA X: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis across computing platforms. Molecular Biology and Evolution 35: 1547-1549. DOI: 10.1093/molbev/msy096
Luna SM. 2018. Scomberomorus koreanus.
Mayr E. 1944. Wallace's Line in the Light of Recent Zoogeographic Studies. The Quarterly Review of Biology 19: 1–14.
Megarani DV, Nugroho HA, Andarini ZP, Surbakti YDRB, Widayanti R. 2020. Genetic characterization and phylogenetic study of Indonesian indigenous catfish based on mitochondrial cytochrome B gene. Veterinary world 13: 96. doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2020.96-103
Nesbo CL, Rueness EK, Iversen SA, Skagen DW, Jakobsen KS. 2000. Phylogeography and population history of Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus L.): a genealogical approach reveals genetic structuring among the eastern Atlantic stocks. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 267(1440), 281-292.
Nuryadin D, Syaifudin N, Handika R, Setyobudi RH, Udjianto DW. 2016. The Economics of Marine Sector in Indonesia. Aquatic Procedia 7: 181-186.
Ouso DO, Otiende MY, Jeneby MM, Oundo JW, Bargul JL, Miller SE, ... , Villinger J. 2020. Three-gene PCR and high-resolution melting analysis for differentiating vertebrate species mitochondrial DNA for biodiversity research and complementing forensic surveillance. Scientific reports 10: 1-13.
Randall JE. 1995. Coastal Fishes of Oman. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu Hawaii.
Setyobudi EKO, Rohmah I, Syarifah RF, Ramatia L, Murwantoko M, Sari DWK. 2019. Presence of Anisakis nematode larvae in Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger spp.) along the Indian Ocean southern coast of East Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas Journal of Biological Diversity, 20(1), 313-319. DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d200136
Sulaiman ZH, Ovenden JR. 2010. Population genetic evidence for the east-west division of the narrow-barred Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson, Perciformes: Teleostei) along Wallace’s Line. Biodivers.Conserv. 19: 563-574.
Teletchea F, Bernillon J, Duffraisse M, Laudet V, Hänni C. 2008. Molecular identification of vertebrate species by oligonucleotide microarray in food and forensic samples. Journal of Applied Ecology 45: 967-975.
Widayanti R, Haryanto A, Artama WT, and Pakpahan S. 2019. Genetic variation and phylogenetic analysis of Indonesian indigenous catfish based on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit III gene. Veterinary world, 12(6), 896. doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2019.896-900
Widodo J. 1998. Sistematika, Biologi dan Perikanan Tenggiri (Scomberomorus scombridae) di Indonesia. Pewarta Oseana 14: 145-150.
Zhu Y, Cheng Q, Rogers SM. 2016. Genetic structure of Scomber japonicus (Perciformes: Scombridae) along the coast of China revealed by complete mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences. Mitochondrial DNA Part A 27: 3828-3836.
Zuckerkandl E, Pauling L. 1965. Evolutionary divergence and convergence in proteins. In Evolving genes and proteins (pp. 97-166). Academic Press., New York.
Zulfahmi AN, Swastawati F. 2014. Pemanfaatan Dagingikan Tenggiri (Scomberomorus commersoni) dengan Konsentrasi yang Berbeda pada Pembuatan Kerupuk Ikan. Jurnal Pengolahan dan Bioteknologi Hasil Perikanan 3: 133-139.

Most read articles by the same author(s)