Diversity of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi of Kalappia celebica: An endemic and endangered plant species in Sulawesi, Indonesia




Abstract. Husna, Tuheteru FD, Albasri, Arif A, Basrudin, Nurdin WR, Arman E, Agustin DI, Saribadu J, Rahmat, Dermawansyah A, Daliana, Lody LP, Deri AS, Safitri I. 2022. Diversity of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi of Kalappia celebica.): An endemic and endangered plant species in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 5290-5297. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) are a group of fungi belonging to Phylum Glomeromycota. AMF has a symbiotic relationship with higher plants, including endangered species in various climatic regions and land types. Research on AMF diversity related to endemic and endangered tree species in the tropics is still limited. This study aimed to examine the diversity of AMF in the natural habitat of Kalappia celebica Kosterm. (kalapi) in Southeast Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. Samples of soil and roots of K. celebica were collected from six natural habitat locations, i.e., Konawe District (Anggatoa and Abuki Villages), East Kolaka District (Lalingato and Anggaloosi Villages) and Kolaka District (Lalonaha and Lapao Pao Villages). The AMF spores were isolated by using the pouring method, followed by wet filtration. AMF identification was carried out by observing the morphology of AMF spores. A total of eight AMF species belonging to three genera Viz. Glomus, Funneliformis and Rhizophagus were isolated. Among the species identified, five species belong to genus Glomus, two species belong to the genus Funneliformis and one species belongs to the genus Rhizophagus. Glomus sp.1 and 2 and F. mosseae had the highest spore density, relative density and frequency, and importance index values. The AMF highest spore density was obtained in Anggaloosi Village of East Kolaka District. Soil properties such as organic C, total N and clay were positively correlated with spore density and negatively correlated with AMF colonization. The Simpson’s Index ranged from 0.42 ± 0.117 to 0.86 ± 0.068. The range of Shannon-Wiener Index was 0.12 ± 0.208 to 0.99 ± 0.198, while the Evenness Index ranged from 0.17 ± 0.189 to 0.75 ± 0.106. These findings indicated that K. celebica species are rich in AMF diversity. These symbiont fungi are key components of the ecosystem. Further research is needed to develop their use as promoters of plant establishment in conservation and restoration of those sites.


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