Variations of grain physical properties, amylose and anthocyanin of upland red rice cultivars from East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

JENNY E.R. MARKUS
A.S.S. NDIWA
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5647-7463
SHIRLY S. OEMATAN
YOSEP S. MAU

Abstract

Abstract. Markus JER, Ndiwa ASS, Oematan SS, Mau YS. 2021. Variations of grain physical properties, amylose and anthocyanin of upland red rice cultivars from East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 22: 1345-1354.  Red rice is becoming more popular nowadays due to the increasing awareness of rice consumers on its health benefits. The demands for red rice are increasing but the supply is limited, thus, local red rice cultivars can be used to fill this gap. Optimal use of local rice germplasm requires a comprehensive evaluation of their traits, and the genotypes having the most desirable traits can be selected for direct use. Several upland red rice cultivars from East Nusa Tenggara Province have been evaluated for various traits while their grain properties are still unrevealed. Information on grain properties is important, both for consumer preference and rice breeders. This study aimed to elucidate the grain physical properties, amylose, and anthocyanin of upland red rice germplasm from ENT Province, and to identify genotypes with the most desirable characters for further employment. Eighteen rice genotypes were used in this study. They were cultivated in the field, and the harvested grains were analyzed in the laboratory. Both ANOVA and descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Substantial variations were observed on all variables, except the chalky grain percentage. The kernel length of tested genotypes was classified as long, medium, and short while the kernel shapes were slender, medium, and bold. Most tested genotypes had high head rice percentage and low to medium percentages of large and small broken kernels. Chalky grain was almost absent. Amylose content ranged from 1.0% to 28% while anthocyanin was about 1.0 - 20 mg/100 g. The evaluated genotypes were clustered into three main groups. Percentages of large and small broken kernels, and amylose content were mostly responsible for the observed variations among the rice genotypes. The red rice genotypes were diverse in the studied characters, thus, those with desirable grain characters are useful for further development and utilization.

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

References
Abdel-Aal E-SM, Young CJ, Rabalsk I. 2006. Anthocyanin composition in black, blue, pink, purple, and red cereal grains. J. Agric. Food Chem 54: 4696-4704.
Astuti1 M, Kanoni S, Mustika M, Krisbianto O. 2017. Commercial, cooking and eating quality traits and nutrient values of local
mixed black and white rice from Yogyakarta. Indonesian Food and Nutrition Progres 14 (2): 118-127.
Banjerdpongchai R, Wudtiwai B, Sringarm K. 2013. Cytotoxic and apoptotic-inducing effects of purple riceextracts and chemotherapeutic drugs on human cancer celllines. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 14 (11): 6541-654. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.11.654.
BPS NTT. 2020. Provinsi Nusa Tenggara Timur Dalam Angka 2020. Badan Pusat Statistik Provinsi Nusa Tenggara Timur, Kupang.
Bhonsle SJ, Sellappan K. 2010. Agriculturegrain quality evaluation of traditionally cultivated ricevarieties of Goa, India. recent research in science and technology, 2(6): 88-97. [Available from: http://irgu.unigoa.ac.in/drs/handle/unigoa/2386, Acceesed August 15, 2017].
BSN. 2008. Standar Nasional Indonesia. SNI: 6128, Beras. Badan Standardisasi Nasional. Jakarta. [In Indonesian]
Chen X, Zhou X, Yang Z, Gu C, TaoY, Guo Q, Guo D, Zhang H, Xu P, Liao Y, Wang Y, DuanQ, RanX, Wang L, Li Y and Wu X. 2019. Analysis of quality involving in minerals, amylose, protein, polyphenols and antioxidant capacity in different coloured rice varieties. Food Sci Technol Res25(1): 141-148. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3136/fstr.25.141.
Chen M-H, McClung AM, Bergman CJ. 2016. Concentrations of ligomers and polymers of proanthocyanidi ns in red and purple rice bran and their relationships to total phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidant capacity and whole grain color. Food Chem 208:279–87. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.04.004.
Delwiche SR, Bean MM, Miller RE, Webb BD, Williams PC. 1995. Apparent amylose content of milled rice by Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectrophotometry. Cereal Chem 72(2):182-187.
Giusti, MM, Wrolstad RE. 2000. Characterization and measurement of anthocyanins by UV-Visible spectrophotometry. John Wiley and Son. Inc, New York.
Hanifa AP, Millner JP, McGill CRM, Sjahril R. 2020.Total anthocyanin, flavonoid and phenolic content ofpigmented rice landraces from South Sulawesi. IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci. 484.012036. DOI:10.1088/1755-1315/484/1/012036.
Henderson AJ, Ollila AC, Kumar A, Borresen EC, Raina K, Agarwal R, Ryan EP. 2012. Chemopreventiveproperties of dietary rice bran: current status and futureprospects. Adv Nutr3: 643-53. DOI: 10.3945/an.112.002303.
Humaira A, Murtaza I, Nazir N, Wani AB, Naqash S, and Husaini AM. 2017. Nutritional profiling of pigmented and scented rice mirgenotypes of Kashmir Himalayas. Int. J. Pharmacogn. Phytochem6(6):910-916.
Hyun JW, Chung HS, 2004. Cyanidin and malvidin from Oryza sativa cv. Heugjinjubyeo mediate cytotoxicity against humanmonocytic leukemia cells by arrest of G2/M phase and induction of apoptosis. J. Agric. Food Chem. 52: 2213-2217. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/jf030370h.
IAARD (Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development).2012. Newly released superior rice varieties. Warta PenelitianPertanian 34 (1): 8-9. [in Indonesian]
Ichikawa H, Ichiyanagi T, Xu B, Yoshii Y, Nakajima M, Konishi T. 2001. Antioxidant activity of anthocyanin extract purple black rice. J Med Food 4(4):211–8. Epub 2003/03/1.DOI:10.1089/10966200152744481 PMID: 12639403.
IRRI (International Rice Research Institute). 1988. Standard Evaluation System for Rice. IRRI, Los Banos, the Philippines.14 pp.
Indonesian Ministry of Agriculture. 2009a. The release of local uplandred rice variety segreng as superior variety Segreng Handayani.Ministry of Agriculture Decree No.2226/Kpts/SR.120/5/2009, 19May, 2009. Indonesian Ministry of Agriculture, Jakarta.
Indonesian Minsitry of Agriculture. 2009b. The release of local upland redrice variety Mandel as Superior Variety Mandel Handayani. Ministryof Agriculture Decree No.2227/Kpts/SR.120/5/2009, 19 May, 2009.Indonesian Ministry of Agriculture, Jakarta.
JulianoBO. 1971. A simplified assay for milled-rice amylose. Cereal Sci. Today 16:334–340.
Juliano BO. 1979. Amylose analysis in rice - A review. Proceeding Workshop on Chemical Aspects of Rice Grain Quality, Los Banos, The Philippines, p. 251-260.
Juliano B.O. 1993. Rice in Human Nutrition. Food andAgriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
ISBN-13: 9251031495, Pages: 162.
Kim DK, Park S, Lee JY, Ha, Lee SH JG andLim SH. 2018. A rice B-Box protein, OsBBX14, finely regulatesanthocyanin biosynthesis in rice. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 19, 2190; DOI: 10.3390/ijms19082190.
Kim CK, Cho MA, Choi YH, Kim JA, Kim YH, Kim YK.2011. Identification and characterization of seedspecific transcription factors regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis in black rice. J. Appl. Genet52(2):161–9. DOI: 10.1007/s13353-011-0027-3.
Kristamtini dan Purwaningsih H. 2009. Potensi pengembangan beras merah sebagai plasma nutfah Yogyakarta. Jurnal Litbang Pertanian 28 (3): 88-95. [In Indonesian]
Lalel HJD, Abidin Z, dan Jutomo L. 2009. Sifat fisiko kimia beras merah gogo lokal Ende. Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan 20 (2): 109-116. [In Indonesian]
Lee HS, Oh SK, Choi HC, and Kim SU. 1998. Identification of anthocyanins from pigmented rice seed. Agric. Chem. Biotechnol. 41:257-260.
Lim SH and HaSH, 2013. Marker development for theidentification of rice seed color. Plant Biotechnol
Rep 7: 391–398.
Mardiah Z, Septianingrum E, Handoko DD, Kusbiantoro B. 2017. Improvement of red rice eating quality through one-time polishing process and evaluation on its phenolic and anthocyanin content. International Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Plantation 5: 22-28.
Mau YS, Ndiwa ASS, Markus JER, Oematan SS, Nasution A, Handoko DD, Makbul K. 2017. Genetic diversity of red and black upland rice accessions from East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia as revealed by agro-morphological characters. Biodiversitas 18(1): 197-211.DOI:10.13057/biodiv/d180127.
Mau YS, Ndiwa ASS, Markus JER, Oematan SS, Nasution A, Handoko DD, Makbul K. 2018. Blast resistance levels of red and black upland rice local cultivars from Indonesia. Asian Journal of Crop Science 10(2): 53-65.DOI: 10.3923/ajcs.2018
Mau YS, Ndiwa ASS, Markus JER, Oematan SS. 2019. Drought tolerance indices for selection of drought tolerant, high yielding upland rice genotypes. Australian Journal of Crop Sciences 10 (3): 170-178.DOI: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.01.p1778.
Mau YS, Ndiwa ASS, Oematan SS 2020. Brown spot disease severity, yield and yield loss relationships in pigmented upland rice from East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 21 (4): 2625-2634.DOI:https://doi.org/10.13057/biodiv/d210443.
Muntana N, Prasong S. 2010. Study on total phenolic content and their antioxidant activities of thai white, red and black rice bran extracts. J Biol Sci 13: 170-174. DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2010.170.174.
Nam SH, Choi SP, Kang MY, Koh HJ, Kozukue N, Friedman M. 2006. Antioxidative activities of bran from twenty-one pigmented rice cultivars. Food Chem. 94: 613-620.
Ndiwa ASS, Mau YS. 2019. Yield and yield component performances of local pigmented upland rice cultivars from East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia in three locations. Tropical Drylands 3(2): 49-55. DOI: https://doi.org/10.13057/tropdrylands/t030203.
Oikawa T. Maeda H, Oguchi T, Yamaguchi T. Tanabe N, Ebana K, Yano M, Ebitani T, Izawa T. 2015
The birth of a black rice gene and its local spread by introgression. Plant Cell27: 2401–2414. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1105/tpc.15.00310.
PojerE, Mattivi F, Johnson D, Stockley CS. 2013. The case for anthocyanin consumption to promote human health: a review. Compr. Rev. Food Sci, Food Saf. 12(5):483–508. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12024.
Ponnappan S, Thangavel A, Sahu O. 2017.Milling and physical characteristics of pigmented rice varieties. International Journal of Food Chemistry; 1(1): 24-29. DOI: 10.11648/j.ijfc.20170101.15.
Prior R, Cao G, Martin A, SoficE, McEwen J, O”Brien C, Lischner N, Ehlenfeldt M, Kaalt W, Krewer G, and Mainland CM. 1998. Antioxidant capacity as influenced by total phenolic and anthocianin content, maturity, dari Vaccinium species. J. Agric Food Chem., 46:2686 – 2693. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/jf980145d.
Priya TSR, Nelson ARLE, Ravichandran K, and Antony U. Nutritional and functional properties of coloured rice varieties of South India: a review. Journal of Ethnic Foods 6:1-11.DOI:10.1186/s42779-019-0017-3.
Sakulsingharoj C, Inta P, Sukkasem R, Pongjaroenkit S, Chowpongpang S, Sangtong V. 2016. Cloning and characterization of OSB1 gene controlling anthocyanin biosynthesis from Thai black rice. Genomics and Genetics 9(1): 7-18. DOI: 10.14456/gag.2016.2.
Santika A. dan Rozakurniati, 2010. Teknik evaluasi mutu beras ketan dan beras merah pada beberapa galur padi gogo. Buletin Teknik Pertanian, 15 (1): 1 – 5. [in Indonesian].
Satue-Gracia MT, Heinonen M, and Frankel EN. 1997. Anthocyanins as antioxidants on human low-density lipoprotein and lecithin liposome systems. J. Agric. Food Chem. 45: 3362-3367.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/jf970234a.
Shao Y, Xu F, Sun X, Bao J, and Beta T. 2014. Identification and quantification of phenolic acids and anthocyanins as antioxidants in bran, embryo and endosperm of white, red and black rice kernels (Oryza sativa L.). J Cereal Sci. 59: 211–8.
Shih CH, Chu H, Tang LK, Sakamoto W, MaekawaM, Chu IK, Wang M, Lo C. 2008. Functional characterization of key structural genes in rice flavonoid biosynthesis. Planta 228: 1043–1054.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2014.01.004.
Shilpa JB and Sellappan K. 2010. Grain quality evaluation of traditionally cultivated rice varieties of Goa, India. Recent Research in Science and Technology 2(6): 88-97.
Suliartini NWS, Sadimantara GR, Wijayanto T, Muhidin. 2011. Pengujian kadar antosianin padi gogo beras merah hasil koleksi plasma nutfah Sulawesi Tenggara. Crop Agro 4 (2):43-48.
Sun X, Zhang Z, Chen C, Wu W, Ren N, Jiang C, Yu J, Zhao Y, Zheng X, and Yang Q. 2018. The C-S-A
gene system regulates hull pigmentation and reveals evolution of anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway in rice.
J. Exp. Bot. 69: 1485–1498. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/ery001.
Sweeney MT, Thomson MJ, Pfeil BE, McCouch S. 2006. Caught red-handed: Rc encodes a basic
helix-loop-helix protein conditioning red pericarp in rice. Plant Cell 18:283–294. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1105/tpc.105.038430.
Tsuda T, Horio F, and Osawa T. 2002. Cyanidin 3-O-â-glucoside suppresses nitric oxide production during a zymosan treatment in rats. J. Nutr.Sci. Vitaminol. 48, 305-310.DOI: 10.3177/jnsv.48.305.
Widyawati PS, Suteja AM, Suseno TIP, Monika M, Saputrajaya W, Liguori C.2014. Effect of pigment color difference in organic rice on antioxidant activity. Agritech 34 (4): 399 – 406. DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.9434[in Indonesian].
Yawadio R, Tanimori S, and Morita N. 2007.Identification of phenolic compounds isolated from pigmented rices and their aldose reductase inhibitory activities. Food Chemistry 101 (4): 1616-1625. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.04.016.
Zhao C, Giusti MM, Malik M, Moyer MP, and Magnuson BA. 2004. Effects of commercial anthocyanin-rich extracts on colonic cancer and nontumorigenic colonic cell growth. J. Agric. FoodChem. 52: 6122-6128.DOI: 10.1021/jf049517a.