Invasive species in the soil seed bank of two limestone hills in Bogor, West Java, Indonesia




Abstract. Putri WU, Qayim I, Qadir A. 2021. Invasive species in the soil seed bank of two limestone hills in Bogor, West Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 22: 4019-4027. Study on the impact of invasive species on plant communities has been conducted mainly on the aboveground vegetation. The impact on the soil seed bank has received less attention mostly due to practical difficulties in conducting seed bank assessment. Evaluation of seed bank composition is useful in detecting invasive plant species that may have been present as buried seeds. Information on the vegetation composition in Nyungcung and Kapur hills both under and aboveground is available, but specific information on invasive species has not been discussed yet. This paper describes and analyzes the structure (composition and density) of invasive species in the soil seed bank. Eighty soil samples were taken from the study sites. The soil seed banks were analyzed using seedling emergence and seed extraction methods. 2602 and 1280 seedlings emerged from soil seed bank of Nyungcung and Kapur hills, respectively. From that number, approximately 48.96% and 68.51% of the seedlings are invasive species in the soil seed bank of Nyungcung and Kapur hills. The invasive species were dominants in the soil seed bank of the two sites. Cecropia peltata and Clidemia hirta were the most abundant invasive species in the Kapur and Nyungcung hills seed bank, respectively. Species richness and seedling density were higher in Nyungcung hills than Kapur hills, which were invaded for a relatively longer period.


Abella SR, Chiquoine LP, Backer DM. 2012. Ecological characteristics of sites invaded by buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare). Invasive Plant Sci Manag 5: 443–453. DOI: 10.1614/IPSM-D-12-00012.1
Afriyanti D, H. Simbolon. 2004. Seed Dispersal Mechanisms in Ex Burnt Peat swamp Forest of Berbak National Park, Jambi Province, Indonesia: A Determination for rehabilitation programme of degraded area of Berbak National Park. Promoting the River Basin and Ecosystem Approach for Sustainable Management of SE Asian lowland Peat Swamp Forest: Case Study Air Hitam Laut River Basin, Jambi Province, Indonesia.Wetlands International Indonesia Programme, Indonesia.
Aparicio A, Guisande R. 1997. Replenishment of the endangered Echinosportum algibicum (Genisteae, Fabaceae) from the soil seed bank. Biol Conserv 81: 267-273. DOI:10.1016/S0006-3207(96)00154-1
Baker HG. 1989. Some aspects of the natural history of seed banks. In: Leck, M.A., Parker, V.T., Simpson, R.L. (Eds.), Ecology of Soil Seed Bank. Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 9–24.
Binggeli P. 2005. Crop Protection Compendium - Cecropia peltata L.
Britannica, T. Editors of Encyclopaedia (2021, February 11). Limestone. Encyclopedia Britannica.
CABI. 2021. Invasive Species Compendium-Clidemia Hirta.
Chesson, P., Nancy J. Huntly, Stephen H. Roxburgh, Marissa Pantastico-Caldas and José M. Facelli. 2013. The storage effect: definition and tests in two plant communities. Pp 11-40 in C. K. Kelly, M. G. Bowler, G. A. Fox eds, Temporal dynamics and ecological process. Cambridge University Press.
Davis MA. 2003. Biotic globalization: does competition from introduced species threaten biodiversity? Bioscience 53: 481–489. DOI: 10.1641/0006-3568(2003)053[0481:BGDCFI]2.0.CO;2
Drake DR. 1998. Relationships among the seed rain, seed bank, and vegetation of a Hawaiian forest. J Veg Sci 9: 103–112. DOI: 10.2307/3237228
Espeland EK, Perkins LB, Leger EA. 2010. Comparison of seed bank estimation techniques using six weed species in two soil types. Rangeland Ecol Manag 63: 243–247. DOI: 10.2111/REM-D-09-00109.1
Garwood, N. C. 1989. Tropical Soil Seed Banks: A Review. In M. A. Leck, V. T. Parker, R. L. Simpson (Eds.), Ecology of Soil Seed Banks (pp. 9-21). San Diego, CA: Academic Press Inc. DOI: 10.1016/b978-0-12-440405-2.50014-2.
Gioria M, Dieterich B, Osborne B. 2011. Battle of the giants: Primary and secondary invasions by large herbaceous species. Biology and Environment: Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy Vol. 111B, No. 3, Plant Invasions [Ireland].
Gioria M, Jarošík V, Pyšek P. 2014. Impact of invasions by alien plants on soil seed bank communities: Emerging patterns. Perspect Plant Ecol Evol Sys 16: 132–142. DOI: 10.1016/j.ppees.2014.03.003
Gioria M, Osborne BA. 2009. Assessing the impact of plant invasions on soil seed bank communities: Use of univariate and multivariate statistical approaches. J Veg Sci 20: 547–556. DOI: 10.1111/j.1654-1103.2009.01054.x
____________________. 2010. Similarities in the impact of three large invasive plant species on soil seed bank communities. Biol Invasions 12: 1671-83. DOI: 10.1007/s10530-009-9580-7
Gioria M, Pyšek P, Moravcova L. 2012. Soil seed banks in plant invasions: Promoting species invasiveness and long-term impact on plant community dynamics. Preslia 84: 327–350.
Gioria M, Pyšek P. 2016. The legacy of plant invasions: changes in the soil seed bank of invaded plant communities. Bioscience 66: 40–53. DOI: 10.1093/biosci/biv165
_______________. 2017. Early bird catches the worm: germination as a critical step in plant invasion. Biol Invasions 19:1055–1080. DOI: 10.1007/s10530-016-1349-1.
Goets SA, Kraaij T, Little KM. 2018. Seed bank and growth comparisons of native (Virgilia divaricata) and invasive alien (Acacia mearnsii and A. melanoxylon) plants: implications for conservation. PeerJ 6: e5466. DOI: 10.7717/peerj.5466
Grewell BJ, Gillard MB, Futrell CJ, Castillo JM. 2019. Seedling emergence from seed banks in Ludwigia hexapetala-invaded wetlands: Implications for Restoration. Plants 8: 451. DOI: 10.3390/plants8110451
Herrera I, Nassar JM. 2009. Reproductive and recruitment traits as indicators of the invasive potential of Kalanchoe daigremontiana (Crassulaceae) and Stapelia gigantea (Apocynaceae) in a Neotropical arid zone. J Arid Environ 73: 978–986. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaridenv.2009.05.004
Holmes PM. 2002. Depth distribution and composition of seed banks in alien-invaded and uninvaded fynbos vegetation. Austral Ecol 27: 110–120. DOI: 10.1046/j.1442-9993.2002.01164.x
Honig MA, Cowling RM, Richardson DM. 1992. The invasive potential of Australian banksias in South African fynbos: a comparison of the reproductive potential of Banksia ericifolia and Leucadendron laureolum. Austral Ecol 17, 305–314. DOI: 10.1111/j.1442-9993.1992.tb00812.x
Hopfensperger KN. 2007. A review of similarity between seed bank and standing vegetation across ecosystems. Oikos 116: 1438–1448. DOI: 10.1111/j.0030-1299.2007.15818.x
Jakobsson A, Eriksson O, Bruun HH. 2006. Local seed rain and seed bank in a species-rich grassland: effects of plant abundance and seed size. Can J Bot 84: 1870–1881. DOI: 10.1139/b06-136
Krinke L, Moravcová L, Pyšek P, Jarošík V, Pergl J, Perglová I. 2005. Seed bank of an invasive alien, Heracleum mantegazzianum, and its seasonal dynamics. Seed Sci Res 15: 239–248. DOI: 10.1079/SSR2005214
Levine JM, Vila` M, D’Antonio CM, Dukes JS, Grigulis K, Lavorel S. 2003. Mechanisms underlying the impact of exotic plant invasions. Proceeding of the Royal Society, London, Serie B, 270: 775–781 [UK].
Li CD, Xiao B, Wang Q, Zheng R, Wu J. 2017. Responses of seed bank and Vegetation to the Increasing Intensity of Human Disturbance in a Semi-Arid Region of Northern China. Sustainability 9:1837. DOI: 10.3390/su9101837
Liu X, He Y, Xiao Y, Wang Y, Jiang Y, Jiang Y. 2019. Soil seed burial and competition with surrounding plants determine the emergence and development of seedling of an endangered species Horsfieldia hainanensis Merr. in china. Sci Rep 9:17970. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-54644-7
Lockwood JL, Cassey P, Blackburn T. 2005. The role of propagule pressure in explaining species invasions. Trends Ecol Evol 20: 223–228. DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2005.02.004
Long RL, Gorecki MJ, Renton M, Scott JK, Colville L, Goggin DE, Commander LE, Westcott DA, Cherry H, Finch-Savage WE. 2015. The ecophysiology of seed persistence: a mechanistic view of the journey to germination or demise. Biol. Rev. 90 (1): 31–59. DOI: 10.1111/brv.12095
Mack R, Simberloff D, Lonsdale W, Evans H, Clout M, Bazzaz F. 2000. Biotic invasions: causes, epidemiology, global consequences, and control. Ecol Appl 10: 689–710. DOI: 10.2307/2641039
Martinez-Duro E, Luzuriaga AL. Ferrandis P, Escudero A, Herranz JM. 2012. Does aboveground vegetation composition resemble soil seed bank during succession in specialized vegetation on gypsum soil? Ecol Res 27 (1). DOI: 10.1007/s11284-011-0870-z
McIntyre S, Martin TG, Heard KM, Kinloch J. 2005. Plant traits predict impact of invading species: an analysis of herbaceous vegetation in the subtropics. Aust J Bot 53: 757–770. DOI: 10.1071/BT05088
Medeiros. A.C. 2004. Phenology, reproductive potential, seed dispersal and predation and seedling establishment of three invasive plant species in a Hawaiian rain forest. [Thesis] Department of Zoology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu [USA].
Moles AT, Falster DS, Leishman MR, Westoby M. 2004. Small-seeded species produce more seeds per square metre of canopy per year, but not per individual per lifetime. J Ecol 92: 384–396. DOI: 10.1111/j.0022-0477.2004.00880.x
Pieterse PJ, Cairns ALP. 1988. The population dynamics of the weed Acacia longifolia (Fabaceae) in the absence and presence of fire. South Afr For J 145: 25 – 27. DOI: 10.1080/00382167.1988.9630330
Price JN, Wright BR, Gross CL, Whalley WRDB. 2010. Comparison of seedling emergence and seed extraction techniques for estimating the composition of soil seed banks. Methods Ecol Evol 1: 151-157. DOI: 10.1111/j.2041-210X.2010.00011.x
Richardson DM, Kluge RL. 2008. Seed banks of invasive Australian Acacia species in South Africa: Role in invasiveness and options for management. Pers Plant Ecol Evol Sys 10: 161 – 177. DOI: 10.1016/j.ppees.2008.03.001
Richardson DM, Pysek P. 2008. Fifty years of invasion ecology – the legacy of Charles Elton. Divers Distrib 14: 161–168. DOI: 10.1111/j.1472-4642.2008.00464.x
Richardson DM, Van Wilgen BW. 2004. Invasive alien plants in South Africa: how well do we understand the ecological impacts? South Afr J Sci 100: 45–52.
Rogers HM, Hartemink AE. 2000. Soil seed bank and growth rates of an invasive species, Piper aduncum, in the lowlands of Papua New Guinea. J Trop Ecol 16 243–51. DOI: 10.1111/wre.12134
Satyanti A, Kusuma YWC. 2010. Ecological study in two quarried limestone karst hills in Bogor West Java: vegetation structure and floristic composition. Biotropia. 17(2): 115-129. DOI: 10.11598/btb.2010.17.2.81
Schneider HE, Allen EB. 2012. E?ects of elevated nitrogen and exotic plant invasion on soil seed bank composition in Joshua Tree National Park. Plant Ecol 213: 1277–1287. DOI: 10.1007/s11258-012-0085-6
Shen Y, Liu W, Cao M, Li Y. 2007. Seasonal variation in density and species richness of soil seed banks in karst forest and degraded vegetation in central Yunnan, SW China. Seed Sci Res 17: 99-107. DOI: 10.1017/S0960258507708139
Shen Y, Liu W, Li Y, Guan H. 2014. Large sample area and size are needed for forest soil seed bank studies to ensure low discrepancy with standing vegetation. PLoS One 9 (8): 1-8. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0105235. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0105235
Shiferaw W, Demissew S, Bekele T. 2018. Ecology of soil seed banks: Implications for conservation and restoration of natural vegetation: A review. Int J Biodivers Conserv 10(10): 380-393. DOI: 10.5897/IJBC2018.1226
Silander SR, Lugo AE. 1990. Cecropia peltata L. Yagrumo hembra, Trumpet-tree.
Simpson RL, Leck MA, Parker VT. 1989. Seed banks: general concepts and methodology issues. In: Leck MA, Parker VT, Simpson RL (eds) Ecology of soil seed banks. Academic, London, pp 3–8.
Strydom M, Esler KJ, Wood AR. 2012. Acacia saligna seed banks: Sampling methods and dynamics, Western Cape, South Africa. South Afr J Bot 79: 140–147. DOI: 10.1016/j.sajb.2011.10.007
Thompson K, Band SR, Hodgson JG. 1993. Seed size and shape predict persistence in soil. Funct Ecol 7: 236–241. DOI: 10.2307/2389893
Vilà M, Gimeno I. 2007. Does invasion by an alien plant species affect the soil seed bank? J Veg Sci 18: 423–430. DOI: 10.1111/j.1654-1103.2007.tb02554.x
Webber BL, Born C, Conn BJ, Hadiah JT, Zalamea PC. 2011. What is in a name? That which we call Cecropia peltata by any other name would be as invasive? Plant Ecol Divers. 4(2-3): 289–93. DOI: 10.1080/17550874.2011.610372
Widiyanti P, Kusmana C. 2014. The Species Composition and Structure of Vegetation in Karst Area Gunung Cibodas, Ciampea, Bogor. Jurnal Silvikultur Tropika 05 (2): 69-76

Most read articles by the same author(s)