Abundance and antimicrobial susceptibility of Shigella spp. isolated from aquatic environments in Banda Aceh, Indonesia

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

YUNI ZAHARA
SUHARTONO SUHARTONO
NURLIANA NURLIANA
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8705-1916

Abstract

Abstract. Zahara Y, Suhartono S, Nirliana N. 2022. Abundance and antimicrobial susceptibility of Shigella spp. isolated from aquatic environments in Banda Aceh, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 6420-6427. Accumulating pathogenic bacteria in aquatic systems increases waterborne infections, including shigellosis. The infection is causatively associated with Shigella spp. within the water system. This study aimed to isolate and determine the abundance of Shigella spp. collected from three rivers in Banda Aceh, Indonesia, namely Krueng Lamnyong, Krueng Aceh, and Krueng Neng water, and their antibiotic susceptibility. The bacterial enumeration was conducted using the MPN method followed by bacterial isolation using XLD and SSA selective media, whereas antibiotic susceptibility was evaluated using the standards of CLSI. Results showed that there was no significant difference (p=0.059) in the bacterial abundance among rivers i.e., 4.67 MPN/mL in Krueng Lamnyong, 27.33 MPN/mL in Krueng Aceh, and 18.33 MPN/mL in Krueng Neng. In total, 19 isolates of Shigella spp. were isolated, of which four isolates were from Krueng Lamnyong, nine isolates from Krueng Aceh, and six isolates from Krueng Neng. Antibiotic susceptibility test showed that the isolates had resistance to tetracycline, penicillin, and nalidixic acid. More than half of the isolates were resistant to more than five antibiotic classes. The study indicates that rivers are the main reservoir for the transmission of pathogenic bacteria in aquatic systems and some efforts are needed to reduce potential health risks and ensure water quality in aquatic systems.

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

References
Adewoyin MA, Okoh AI. 2020. Seasonal Shift in Physicochemical Factors Revealed the Ecological Variables that Modulate the Density of Acinetobacter Species in Freshwater Resources. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 17: 3606. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17103606.
Afwanudin A, Sarong MA, Efendi R, Deli A, Irham M. 2019. The community structure of Gastropods as bioindicators of water quality in Krueng Aceh, Banda Aceh. IOP Conf Ser Earth Environ Sci 348: 012122. DOI: 10.1088/1755-1315/348/1/012122.
Agtini MD, Soeharno R, Lesmana M, Punjabi NH, Simanjuntak C, Wangsasaputra F, Nurdin D, Pulungsih SR, Rofiq A, Santoso H, Pujarwoto H, Sjahrurachman A, Sudarmono P, Seidlein LV, Deen JL, Ali M, Lee H, Kim DR, Han O, Park JK, Suwandono A, Ingerani, Oyofo BA, Campbell JR, Beecham HJ, Corwin AL, Clemens JD. 2007. Erratum To: The burden of diarrhoea, shigellosis, and cholera in North Jakarta, Indonesia: findings from 24 months surveillance. BMC Infect Dis 7. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-7-1.
Alegbeleye OO, Sant’Ana AS. 2020. Manure-borne pathogens as an important source of water contamination: An update on the dynamics of pathogen survival/transport as well as practical risk mitigation strategies. Int J Hyg Environ Health 227: 113524. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2020.113524.
Cavicchioli R, Ripple WJ, Timmis KN, Azam F, Bakken LR, Baylis M, Behrenfeld MJ, Boetius A, Boyd PW, Classen AT, Crowther TW, Danovaro R, Foreman CM, Huisman J, Hutchins DA, Jansson JK, Karl DM, Koskella B, Welch DBM, Martiny JBH, Moran MA, Orphan VJ, Reay DS, Remais JV, Rich VI, Singh BK, Stein LY, Stewart FJ, Sullivan MB, Oppen MJHV, Weaver SC, Webb EA, Webster NS. 2019. Scientists’ warning to humanity: microorganisms and climate change. Nat Rev Microbiol 17: 569–586. DOI: 10.1038/s41579-019-0222-5.
Chrismasyanti NKSD, Suastini KD, Cawis NLSA, Dewi NWS. 2020. Pengaruh ekstrak jahe merah (Zingiber Officinale.) terhadap pertumbuhan bakteri Shigella dysentriae. Hang Tuah Med J 17: 136-146.
Cira M, Bafna A, Lee CM, Kong Y, Holt B, Ginger L, Nicholson KC, Rieves L, Jay JA. 2022. Turbidity and fecal indicator bacteria in recreational marine waters increase following the 2018 Woolsey Fire. Sci Rep 12: 2438. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-022-05945-x.
Dahlan D, Iqbar I, Sari EP, Nizamuddin N. 2021. Evaluasi kesesuaian peruntukan lahan di sempadan sungai Krueng Lamnyong, Provinsi Aceh. Rona Teknik Pertanian 14: 116-125. [Indonesian]
Dinkes Banda Aceh. 2020. Profil Kesehatan kota Banda Aceh Tahun 2019. Dinas Kesehatan Kota Banda Aceh.[Indonesian]
Ekwanzala MD, Abia ALK, Keshri J, Momba MNB. 2017. Genetic characterization of Salmonella and Shigella spp. isolates recovered from water and riverbed sediment of the Apies River, South Africa. Water SA 43: 387-397. DOI: 10.4314/wsa.v43i3.03.
Hadi I, Suhendrayatna S, Muchlisin ZA. 2018. Status mutu air dan kandungan logam berat pada air dan sedimen di muara Krueng Aceh, Kota Banda Aceh. DEPIK Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Perairan, Pesisir dan Perikanan 7: 91-99. DOI: 10.13170/depik.7.2.8606. [Indonesian]
Harahap J, Gunawan T, Suprayogi S, Widyastuti M. 2021. Current status of domestic wastewater management system in Banda Aceh, Indonesia. IOP Conf Ser Earth Environ Sci 739: 012009. DOI: 10.1088/1755-1315/739/1/012009.
Jin Q, Kirk MF. 2018. pH as a Primary Control in Environmental Microbiology: 1. Thermodynamic Perspective. Front Environ Sci 6: 21. DOI: 10.3389/fenvs.2018.00021.
Ju F, Beck K, Yin X, Maccagnan A, McArdell CS, Singer HP, Johnson DR, Zhang T, Bürgmann H. 2019. Wastewater treatment plant resistomes are shaped by bacterial composition, genetic exchange, and upregulated expression in the effluent microbiomes. The ISME J 13: 346–360. DOI: 10.1038/s41396-018-0277-8.
Kato H, Yahata Y, Hori Y, Fujita K, Ooura N, Kido T, Yoshimoto K, Matsui T, Izumiya H, Ohnishi M, Oishi K. 2020. A shigellosis outbreak associated with a sports festival at a kindergarten in Kitakyushu City, Japan. J Infect Chemother DOI: 10.1016/j.jiac.2020.06.005.
Khalil IA, Troeger C, Blacker BF, Rao PC, Brown A, Atherly DE, Brewer TG, Engmann CM, Houpt ER, Kang G, Kotloff KL, Levine MM, Luby SP, MacLennan CA, Pan WK, Pavlinac PB, Platts-Mills JA, Qadri F, Riddle MS, Ryan ET, Shoultz DA, Steele D, Walson JL, Sanders JW, Mokdad AH, Murray CJL, Hay SI, Reiner RC. 2018. Morbidity and mortality due to Shigella and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli diarrhoea: the global burden of disease study 1990-2016. Lancet Infect Dis 18: 1229–1240. DOI: 10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30475-4.
Luo X, Xiang X, Huang G, Song X, Wang P, Fu K. 2019. Bacterial abundance and physicochemical characteristics ofwater and sediment associated with hydroelectric dam on the Lancang River China. Int J Environ Res Public Health 16: 2031. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph16112031.
Mahagamage MGYL, Pathirage MVSC, Manage PM. 2020. Contamination Status of Salmonella spp., Shigella spp. and Campylobacter spp. in surface and groundwater of the Kelani River Basin, Sri Lanka. Water 12: 2187. DOI: 10.3390/w12082187.
Manyi-Loh C, Mamphweli S, Meyer E, Okoh A. 2018. Antibiotic use in agriculture and its consequential resistance in environmental sources: Potential public health implications. Molecules 23: 795. DOI:10.3390/molecules23040795.
Meiyanti, Salim OC, Herwana E, Kalumpiu JV, Lesmana M. 2016. Antibiotic susceptibility of Salmonella, Shigella and Vibrio isolated from diarrhea patients in Jakarta, Indonesia. Jurnal Kedokteran dan Kesehatan Indonesia 7: 95-101. [Indonesian]
Onuoha SC. 2017. The prevalence of antibiotic resistant diarrhogenic bacterial species in surface waters, South Eastern Nigeria. Ethiop J Health Sci 27: 319-330. DOI: 10.4314/ejhs.v27i4.3.
Ranjbar R, Farahani A. 2019. Shigella: Antibiotic-resistance mechanisms and new horizons for treatment. Infect Drug Resist 12: 3137–3167. DOI: 10.2147/IDR.S219755.
Schuster HJ, Gompelman M, Ang W, Kooter AJ. 2018. An adult case with shigellosis-associated encephalopathy. BMJ Case Rep bcr–2017–222372. DOI: 10.1136/bcr-2017-222372.
Shahin K, Bouzaria M, Wang R, Khorasgani MR. 2019. Distribution of antimicrobial resistance genes and integrons among Shigella spp. isolated from water sources. J Glob Antimicrob Resist 19: 122–128. DOI: 10.1016/j.jgar.2019.04.020.
Shahryari A, Aali R, Zare MR, Ghanbari R. 2017. Relationship between frequency of Escherichia coli and prevalence of Salmonella and Shigella spp. in a natural river. J Environ Health Sustain Dev. 2: 416-421.
Suhartono S, Ismail YS, Aini Z. 2021. Distribution of multidrug-resistant Salmonella spp. recovered from aquatic environment of Banda Aceh, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 22: 881-886. DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d220243.
Suhartono S, Savin MC, Gbur EE. 2017. Transmissible plasmids and integrons shift Escherichia coli population toward larger multiple drug resistance numbers. Microb Drug Resist 24: 244–252. DOI: 10.1089/mdr.2016.0329.
Suriani S, Soemarno, Suharjono. 2013. Pengaruh suhu dan pH terhadap laju pertumbuhan lima isolat bakteri anggota genus Pseudomonas yang diisolasi dari ekosistem sungai tercemar deterjen di sekitar kampus Universitas Brawijaya. J-PAL 3: 58-62. [Indonesian]
Sipriyadi S, Wibowo RH, Darwis W. 2021. Estimation of numbers of coliform bacterial as water quality indicator in Kepahiang District Rivers, Bengkulu Province. BioLink Jurnal Biologi Lingkungan, Industri dan Kesehatan 7: 154-163. DOI: 10.31289/biolink.v7i2.3841.
Schuster HJ, Gompelman M, Ang W, Kooter AJ. 2018. An adult case with shigellosis-associated encephalopathy. BMJ Case Rep bcr–2017–222372. DOI: 10.1136/bcr-2017-222372.

Most read articles by the same author(s)